c) The fresh east Jewish languages express several has: best fret (1), alter off [Theta] to at least one (4), reinterpretation from verb group since figure (5), and you can reflexive pronouns centered on nos- (17). Talking about areal provides and therefore duration might separate between Halabja on one-hand and Koy Sanjaq and you will Azerbaijan towards other. This is simply not clear in which dialect each of them starts, but they are more than likely lent from 1 towards other people and never passed down in accordance.
Such about three major groups from isoglosses show just a little part of your own evidence that’s brought to sustain on taxonomy of your own NENA languages. Hoberman (1988, 573), having fun with facts out-of pronouns, shows the existence of a north Iraqi dialect classification (right here depicted by the Zakho, Tisqopa, and Aradhin) and therefore cannot be detected based on the restricted data exhibited right here. What is needed now could be both heavier definitions of your dialects currently noted, so more prevalent and you can identifying features can be found, and have field-work to record many languages which can be into the verge regarding extinction.
step one Thank you so much are caused by those who provided research and you can suggestions, such as Gene Gragg, Robert Hoberman, and you can Jo Rubba. Elizabeth.H. june stipend.
Such, f and you may grams have been retained in terms eg etrog ‘citron’ and you can sefer ‘scroll of your own law’, in which regarding passed down Aramaic vocabulary f might have be p and you may g would have vanished
3 Garbell (1964, 100-103) claims your sound system regarding Jewish Azerbaiaic of Kurdish. The lady number 1 evidence for this ‘s the pronunciation regarding Hebrew mortgage-conditions inside dialect. Hebrew loanwords when you look at the Jewish Azerbaijani hold specific musical that have been deleted otherwise merged with people from the common Neo-Aramaic words. Garbell claims that these retentions confirm why these Hebrew terms and conditions was in fact lent originally into the Kurdish, which a small grouping of Kurdish audio system afterwards shifted so you’re able to Neo-Aramaic. It appears probably be the Hebrew points on dialect don’t be involved in the brand new voice alterations in concern on account of this new special religious bumble Ã¼yelik check in to which it belong. They may need altered after which already been recovered to the foundation of traditional enunciation of neighboring organizations.
cuatro A raised + shows that next term try obvious to the suprasegmental ability ’emphasis’ that is located somewhat in every NENA dialects. Phonetically, stress try cutting-edge, however, the first part was velarization, and is also often caused by the clear presence of the latest emphatic consonants t and s.
eight Regarding dialect regarding Tyari [Theta] often gets s. Which dialect, that was spoken prior to 1915 into the a district off Hakkari, is not discussed right here as the materials on it try insufficient.
8 That isn’t clear if this form can be acquired from inside the the fresh Halabja dialect. My informants after that know they, however, said it absolutely was more feature of surrounding city of Suleimaniya. Whatever the case, it’s unknown from the dialect of one’s Jews away from Sanandaj.
9 Robert Hoberman indicates in my opinion that the NENA models get have came from an enthusiastic unattested metathesized e[Theta]peel ezdi.
Boyarin, Daniel. 1981. When you look at the Bono Homini Donum: Essays during the Historic Linguistics inside Recollections out of J. Alexander Kerns, ed. Yoel L. Arbeitman and you may Allan R. Bomhard. Amsterdam Training throughout the Principle and you will History of Linguistic Technology, series IV. Newest Products into the Linguistic Principle 16. Region II, 613-49. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
A query for the Development of your own Middle Aramaic Languages
Garbell, Irene. 1964. Flat Words and Syllables for the Jewish East The Aramaic of Persian Azerbaijan and Continguous Districts (A dilemma of Multilingualism). Inside Training into the Egyptology and Linguistics honoring H. J. Polotsky, ed. H. B. Rosen, 86-103. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Neighborhood.